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Attitude, Job Satisfaction, Personality & Values

/Attitude, Job Satisfaction, Personality & Values


Prominent psychologist Gordon Allport once described attitudes as “the most distinctive and indispensable concept in contemporary social psychology.” Attitude can be formed from a person’s past and present.

Multicomponent model is the most influential model of attitude. Where attitudes are evaluations of an object that have cognitive, affective, and behavioural components.

  • The cognitive component of attitudes refer to the beliefs, thoughts, and attributes that we would associate with an object.
  • The affective component of attitudes refer to your feelings or emotions linked to an attitude object.
  • The behavioural component of attitudes refer to past behaviours or experiences regarding an attitude object.


Job Satisfaction:

Job satisfaction is the level of contentment a person feels regarding his/her job. Job satisfaction can be influenced by a person’s ability to complete required tasks, the level of communication in an organization, and the way management treats employees.

Job satisfaction falls into two levels:

  • Affective job satisfaction is a person’s emotional feeling about the job as a whole.
  • Cognitive job satisfaction is how satisfied employees feel concerning some aspect of their job, such as pay, hours, or benefits.

Measuring Job Satisfaction.

To create a benchmark for measuring and ultimately creating job satisfaction, managers in an organization can employ proven test methods such as the Job Descriptive Index (JDI) or the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ). These assessments help management define job satisfaction objectively.

Important Factors

five factors can be used to measure and influence job satisfaction:

  1. Pay or total compensation
  2. The work itself
  3. Promotion opportunities
  4. Relationship with supervisor
  5. Interaction and work relationship with co-workers


Management and Communication

In addition to these five factors, one of the most important aspects of an individual’s work in a modern organization concerns communication demands that the employee encounters on the job. Demands can be characterized as a communication load: “the rate and complexity of communication inputs an individual must process in a particular time frame.”

Superior-subordinate communication, or the relationship between supervisors and their direct report, is another important influence on job satisfaction in the workplace. The way in which subordinates perceive a supervisor’s behaviour can positively or negatively influence job satisfaction. Communication behaviour—such as facial expression, eye contact, vocal expression, and body movement—is crucial to the superior-subordinate relationship.



The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others, measurable traits a person exhibits.

Personality Determinants

  • Heredity – so we’re born to be “just the way we are”?
  • Environment – oh, so it’s the environment instead?
  • Situation – or is it the situation that determines our personality??

Major personality attributes influencing OB

  • Core Self-Evaluation (self-esteem, locus of control)
  • Machiavellianism
  • Narcissism
  • Self- Monitoring
  • Risk-Taking
  • Type A vs. Type B Personality
  • Proactive Personality



Mode of conduct or end-state is personally or socially preferable (i.e., what is right and good)

  • They contain a judgmental element in that they carry the individual’s idea of what is right, good, or desirable.
  • Value System — a hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual’s values in terms of their intensity.
  • A significant portion of values are genetically determined.  Other factors include national culture, parental dictates, teachers, friends, and similar environmental influences.


Importance of Values

  • Provide understanding of the attitudes, motivation, and behaviours of individuals and cultures
  • Influence our perception of the world around us
  • Represent interpretations of “right” and “wrong”
  • Imply that some behaviours or outcomes are preferred over others


Types of Values

  • Terminal values = “desirable end states”
  • Instrumental values = “modes of behaviour or means towards achieving one’s terminal values”